New Alcoa aerospace solutions presented at AeroMat 2005
The 16th annual AeroMat Advanced Aerospace Materials and Processes Conference and Exposition will feature more than a dozen Alcoa technical papers on innovations ranging from fastener technology to breatkthroughs in metallic structure and design. Alcoa ideas begin with the June 6 plenary session, where Jens Hinrichsen of Alcoa Technical Center will present 'Aerospace Metallics: The Opportunities for Integreated Solutions'.
Aerospace Metallics: The Opportunities for Integrated Solutions.
Plenary Keynote
Mr. Jens Hinrichsen
Director – Aerospace Product Strategy and Development
Alcoa Technical Center, Pa. USA
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Mr. Hinrichsen is currently Director-Aerospace Product Strategy and Development at Alcoa Inc. He has an extensive background in the Aerospace industry in the areas of structural design; requirements, concepts, principles and materials used in the manufacture of aircraft. During the last 27 years he held several leadership positions in structural aspects of numerous Aircraft programs at Airbus. These have ranged from structural dynamics in the Airbus A310, A320, A330, A340 programs to responsibility for the definition of structural technologies and design concepts for the A380 aircraft. Mr Hinrichsen holds a Diploma of Engineering degree from the Hannover Technical University with specialization in structural engineering, fluids and structural dynamics. Prior to joining Airbus, Mr. Hinrichsen spent 7 years in a variety of assignments in the area of Civil Engineering. In his last appointment at Airbus, Mr. Hinrichsen was Director A380 program Airbus Deutschland, Hamburg.
Large panel testing of advanced fuselage concepts for improved performance and cost. Progress towards the Alcoa vision: B.H. Bodily, M. Kulak, M.B. Heinimann and R.J. Bucci Alcoa, Inc., Alcoa Center, PA
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Alcoa anticipates that through the combination of advanced alloys, novel design and innovative manufacturing methods both the cost and weight of future aircraft structure can be significantly reduced compared to the current built-up structure of today. Based on internal trade studies, Alcoa has undertaken an internal research and development program to demonstrate the potential performance improvements capable for fuselage structure through advanced alloys and design concepts.  Panel concepts were identified based on the ability to improve performance and reduce cost.  The program will culminate this year in the testing of large articles representing advanced panel concepts.  This presentation will include an overview of the testing program, test articles, advanced fuselage concepts and potential performance benefits and weight savings in fuselage structures.  Panel concepts include the advanced traditional and aluminum-lithium alloys, as well as the application advanced fiber metal laminates for selective reinforcement and welded stringer panels as a means to reduce cost.  Results of the panel tests will also be shared.

Advanced manufacturing and assembly of metallic wing and fuselage structures for cost savings and role of FSW 2099 ISEP: D. J. Spinella.and  C. Warren, Alcoa, Inc., Alcoa Center, PA
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Advanced aluminum manufacturing and assembly techniques are highlighted for next generation metallic wing and fuselage structures. When innovative design concepts that utilize the optimum product forms and new alloys are combined into an integrated solution, dramatic reductions in both cost and weight can be achieved. Several applications will be highlighted that utilize new emerging manufacturing processes and designs for the aerospace industry to obtain unique advantages over incumbent structures.  Manufacturing demonstration examples will be discussed for Alloy 7055 and 2099 integrally stiffened panels that were friction stir welded.
XPL fasteners: Design and application in the manufacture of metallic and hybrid structures: R. H. Gurrola, L. Haylock and H. R. Zonker, Alcoa, Inc.
The XPL is a new high-performance, two-piece fastening system that simplifies the assembly for hybrid metallic/carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP)structures. The XPL system builds on proven lockbolt technology to provide high sustained clamp-up and interference fit in metallic structures and high clamp-up with low bearing stress in composite structures. The materials selected for both components combined with available supplemental coatings render the system galvanically compatible to metallic or CFRP. The extended grip range of 0.134” - more than twice the standard 0.0625” makes it suitable to accommodate the wider variation in the thickness of CFRP structures. The system provides favorable specific strength, specific preload and commonality among components to reduce errors and reduce inventory cost.
Aerospace Aluminum Die Forgings – A New Perspective
L. Mueller1, R. Bucci2, E. Balmuth3, D. Chellman4
1Alcoa Forging Works, 2Alcoa Technical Center, 3LM Aero-Fort Worth, 4LM Aero-Marietta
In complex airframe parts/structures, die forgings represent premium products that are tailored to structural applications. With the emphasis on concurrent performance and affordability issues for airframe structures, the materials selection and design communities are embracing the principles of structural unitization.  The emergence  of a new generation of aluminum die forged products as a structural “solution” to these challenging unitization objectives involves thick section parts, parting line and residual stress controls, and optimization of directional property behavior.

A number of sophisticated analytical tools have become available to airframe designers to ensure that die forged parts are capable of achieving structural, quality, and schedule benefits compared to baseline flat rolled or extruded aluminum products.  The full 3D modeling of complex part geometries has reduced the span time for design development, die sinking, and machining operations, while minimizing distortion in final forged and machined parts.  NDT and CMM dimensional controls have been integrated early into the die forged design process to ensure that part thickness and residual stresses are fully considered with respect to final machined parts.
The advanced analytical and materials technologies that are being applied to the next generation of aluminum die forgings will be illustrated in terms of several generic airframe parts, along with a timeline exhibiting the benefits of modeling and simulation tools. This presentation will include:
  1. Comparisons among previous die forged products and improvements with “new” generation forged products
  2. Comparisons in terms of other thick section wrought products
  3. Test and validation program underway on 7085 Al die forgings in collaboration between Alcoa and LM Aero
Advanced Aluminum Aerostructures Initiative: Progress report on the C-17 Program.
Alcoa and Boeing teamed together in the 4th year of the Advanced Aluminum Aerostructures Initiative (A3I), a DoD contract administered by the US Air Force.  The main goal of this program is to demonstrate that close cooperation between material producers and airframers through all stages of product development could significantly reduce the cost of installed aerostructure while maintaining or improving its performance.   This presentation will provide a summary of the design and manufacturing of the production monolithic frame for the pressurized C-17 Emergency Escape Door.  The part and fastener count of the current conventionally build-up door was significantly reduced while decreasing the recurring unit cost.  The new monolithic door frame utilized the high speed machined stress relieved forged aluminum technology for maximized part consolidation.  Structural qualification was performed by analysis and by similarity to the original build-up structure.  This presentation will also outline potential benefits of monolithic redesign of some other primary structures in the C-17 aircraft as well as technology spin offs considered for the future commercial jets.  As such, a conversion of conventionally build-up Aft Fuselage Frames into more integrated structure and a business case for the large semi-monolithic Vertical Stabilizer Skins will also be discussed. 
M. Novak - Alcoa, Inc., Alcoa Center, PA
F. DiCocco - Alcoa, Inc., Alcoa Center, PA
C. Garesche – Alcoa, Inc., Alcoa Wheel and Forged Products, Cleveland, OH
R. Talwar - The Boeing Company-Phantom Works, St. Louis, MO
C. Standish - The Boeing Company-Phantom Works, Huntington Beach, CA
E. Nichols - Vought Aircraft Industries Inc., Dallas, TX
Advanced Aluminum Aerostructures Initiative: Progress report on the F-35 Program.
P.Smith - Alcoa, Inc., Alcoa Center, PA
J. Fields - Alcoa Inc., Alcoa Center, PA
F. DiCocco - Alcoa, Inc., Alcoa Center, PA
E. Barnes – Northrop Grumman Corportation, El Segundo, CA
J. Ornato – Northrop Grumman Corporation, El Segundo, CA
R. Keele – Northrop Grumman Corporation, El Segundo, CA

Light Alloy Technology
Status of Flat Roll New Product Development at Alcoa.
R. J. Rioja, L. Oswald, G. Venema, D. J. Chakrabarti, P. Magnusen, R. Ramage, and J. Witters. Alcoa, Inc, Alcoa Center, PA

The status of temper, AMS and MMPDS-5 registration is covered for several new flat rolled products under development at Alcoa. 2397-T87, 7085-T7451 plate products are discussed first. Timing for AMS and MMPDS-5 registrations are presented. The status of 2099 plate is then discussed. Here timing for temper registration is discussed. Finally, the status of development for C47A sheet products is presented. It is shown how these products can provide weight savings in fuselage applications.
Status update on 2099 (C460) extruded products for use in civilian commercial aircraft. T. Cogswell and E. Colvin. Alcoa, Inc, Lafayette, IN.
Recently registered Aluminum Lithium alloy 2099 (formerly C460) has found wide spread interest and use at various airframers in applications requiring high strength or high toughness with increased stiffness and lower density.  The two tempers of 2099, a high strength version, -T83 (formerly -T8E65), and a high toughness version -T8E67 will be discussed. The later is intended to compete with 2xxx-T3X products in lower wing structure. Updated results from the manufacture, characterization and commercialization of these tempers are presented including status for AMS and MMPDS approval.
New aerospace casting alloys from Alcoa. L. Zellman and J. Lin. Alcoa, Inc. Howmet and Alcoa Center PA.
Results from recent efforts aimed at developing improved casting alloys will be presented. Alloy design strategies are discussed to yield alloys as investment castings with improved mechanical properties and good castability. Plans for future alloy and application development are presented and discussed.